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吾将归来,千军万马。

 
 
 
 
 

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地道英语与中国式英语对照3  

2011-04-16 18:00:56|  分类: 英语之美 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
201. 爸爸给这张桌子上了一层新漆。 
[误] Daddy painted the desk with a layer of paint. 
[正] Daddy painted the desk with a coat of paint. 

注:layer 和 coat,虽然翻译成中文都是“层”,但用法却不同。如:Onions have layers(洋葱是一层一层的),但涂上一层油漆却要用  

coat。 

A layer of smog settled over the city. 
The cake has three layers. 
These seeds must be covered with a layer of earth. 
A layer of ice on the street. 

You must put another coat of paint on this door. 
Two coats of painting were needed to cover the old colour. 
A coat of dust 

202. 他喝起酒来像牛钦,但极少出交通事故。 
[误] He drinks like a cattle, but seldom has traffic accidents. 
[正] He drinks like a fish, but seldom has traffic accidents. 

注:中国是个农业国,自古以来牛就是耕作的主要牲畜,所以中国人喜欢用牛,这一自己熟悉的动物来比喻。英国是个岛国,以渔业和航海业 

著称,所以那里的人们最为熟悉的动物就是鱼了。 

203. 他已经到了山穷水尽的地步了。 
[误] They are at the end of their road. 
[正] They are at the end of their tether. 

注:tether 是用来拴家畜的系绳,这些家畜只能在系绳尽头所能达到的范围内活动,所以 at the end of one's tether 被用来比喻能力等 

“达到了极限”。这里的 tether 有时也用 rope 替代。 

204. 国家法律规定,不论贫富,一律征税。 
[误] According to the state law, both poor and rich are taxed. 
[正] According to the state law, both rich and poor are taxed. 

注:两种语言的表达顺序往往存在差异,而且都是约定俗成的,不容改变。又如:前后(back and forth),新旧(old and new),悲欢 

(joy and sorrow),血肉(flesh and blood),钢铁(iron and steel),兴衰(fall and rise),南北(north and south)等。 

205. 要在那么多书中找到我们想要的那本书简直就是大海捞针啊! 
[误] To find a book we want in so many books is just as difficult as looking for a needle in the sea. 
[正] To find a book we want in so many books is just as difficult as looking for a needle in a haystack. 

注:a needle in a haystack(干草堆里的一根针)确实难找,与我们“大海捞针”的难度应该是半斤八两,而且,它可是英语中约定俗成的 

用法啊! 

206. 面包和黄油是西方人极其喜爱的食品。 
[误] Bread and butter are westerners' favorites. 
[正] Bread and butter is westerners' favourite. 

注:bread and butter 在这里应该被看成一个整体,所以谓语动词要用单数形式。又如:刀叉(knife and folk)等。 

207. 失之东隅,收之桑榆。 
[误] Lose where the sun rises and gain where the sun sets. 
[正] What one loses on the swings, he gets back on the roundabouts. 

注:第一句虽然将原文的意思忠实地表达了出来,但英国人仍然难以体会中文“日出之处日落之时”的内涵。因此,借用地道的英语说法才是 

最明智的选择。swings 是“秋千”,roundabouts 是“旋转木马”。swings and roundabouts 在英语中就表示“有得有失”。“失之东隅, 

收之桑榆”还可以直接用 It's all swings and roundabouts 来表达。 

208. 塞翁失马,焉知非福。 
[误] When the old man on the frontier lost his horse, who could tell it was not a blessing in disguise? 
[正] A loss of many turns out to be a gain. 

注:直译出的句子很长,有失原文的韵味。而且,英美人没有听过“塞翁失马”的故事,所以他们也未必能懂。还有一些其它的译法:A loss  

sometimes spells a gain.; Every cloud has a/its silver lining.; Misfortune may be a blessing in disguise.; Nothing so bad,  

as not to be good for sth. 

209. 此地无银三百两。 
[误] There isn't 300 liang of silver buried here. 
[正] A guilty person gives himself away by conspicuously protesting his innocence. 

注:民间故事,有个人把银子埋在土里,上面写了个字条:“此地无银三百两”;他的邻居阿二把银子偷走了,也写了个字条:“隔壁阿二不 

曾偷。” Folk tale. A man buried his silver in the ground and put up a note, saying: "Three hundred ounces of silver is not  

buried here." His neighbour Ah Erh stole the silver and also put up a note with this: "Your neighbour Ah Erh didn't steal  

it." ---A metaphor for one's being exposed by one's own vindication. 与上句一样,对不清楚故事背景的人,只有把一切解释得明白 

一点了。 

210. 现在的家庭一般都用白糖而不用红糖。 
[误] Nowadays households tend to use white sugar rather than red sugar. 
[正] Nowadays households tend to use white sugar rather than brown sugar. 

注:就像我们中国人不知道为什么要叫红糖(有的红糖其实是黄色的),恐怕英国人也不知道为什么要叫 brown sugar,约定俗成吧!另外, 

他们的 brown bread 我们却称作“黑面包”。类似一些说法还有:红眼病 green eyes;脸色发紫 black in the face;红茶 black tea;黄 

色电影 blue film 等。 

211. 对不起,小姐,恐怕我点的不是红茶而是绿茶。 
[误] Sorry Miss, I'm afraid my order is not red tea but green tea. 
[正] Sorry Miss, I'm afraid my order is not black tea but green tea. 

注:与前面的例子一样,这又是无法解释的东西方颜色差异。又如:“黄色书籍”英文用 blue book,“又青又紫”英文称 black and blue 

。另外,西方人眼中的吉日是 a white day,如“婚礼”就被叫做 white wedding,因为新娘的婚纱是白色的(近年来,在中国,一些城里人 

也有去教堂举行婚礼的,自然新娘要穿白色婚纱)。而中国人传统上只有葬礼才用白色形容(如红白“喜事”)。 
About this entry, please refer to: http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?BoardID=26&ID=11151 


212. 三个和尚没水喝。 
[误] Three monks have no drinking water. 
[正] Everybody's business is nobody's business. 

注:后一句译文用最直白的方式将原文的内在含义准确表达出来,避免了文化差异带来的理解障碍。 

213. 人才流失是我们面临的重大问题。 
[误] Talents draining is a serious problem we are facing. 
[正] Brain-draining is a serious problem we are facing. 

注:talent 指的是“天才”,而原文中的“人才”是可以通过后天塑造的,而且 brain-draining 是表示“人才流失”的英文地道说法,用 

在这里更恰当。 

214. 你怎么做出那样愚蠢的事情?真是让人笑掉大牙。 
[误] What a fool you are to do such a thing! That really makes people laugh off their front teeth. 
[正] What a fool you are to do such a thing! That really makes people laugh off their head. 

注:“笑掉头”可比“笑掉门牙”更严重,看来英国人比我们还夸张。 

215. 和他谈文学简直是对牛弹琴。 
[误] To talk with him about literature is nothing but playing the lute to a cow. 
[正] To discuss with him about literature is nothing but casting pearls before swine. 

注:“对牛弹琴”可以借用英语中类似的现成说法。这种可以在英语中找到对应表述的情况很多,如:吹牛(to talk horse);挥金如土 

(to spend money like water);鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利(When shepherds quarrel, the wolf has a winning game);近朱者赤,近墨者黑 

(Who heeps company with the wolf will learn the howl)。 

216. 瞧,那个穿蓝衣服的是她的白马王子。 
[误] Look, that one in blue is her White-horse Prince. 
[正] Look, that one in blue is her Prince Charming. 

注:西方人不会明白为什么一定是骑白马的王子,所以不如直接表现王子的俊朗魅力。管他白马、黑马,反正帅呆了! 

217. 小姑娘红扑扑的脸上挂着微笑。 
[误] The little girl's red cheeks are brightened by a smile. 
[正] The little girl's rosy cheeks are brightened by a smile. 

注:rosy cheeks 所指的红润脸颊展示着健康和美丽,而 red 是用来形容由害羞或窘迫引起的脸红。如:He went red when I asked about  

his girlfriend. 下面给出有关 red 的翻译:(For the time being, I cannot locate the post I posted on Rainlane months ago. I'll  

settle this later on.) 

218. 韦尼格先生因酒后驾车被罚了100美元。 
[误] Mr. Vinegar was punished $100 for drunken driving. 
[正] Mr. Vinegar was fined $100 for drunken driving. 

注:punish 后面不直接加具体惩罚,如:He was punished by long terms of imprisonment(他被处以长期监禁)或 He was unished to  

pay $100 for drunk driving。专门用来表示罚款的动词是 fine,其后可直接加被罚金额。 

219. 挂羊头卖狗肉。 
[误] Hanging a sheep's head while selling a dog's flesh. 
[正] Cry up wine and sell vinegar. 

注:嚷着卖酒,其实卖的却是醋,这也是名不符实的典型。至于为什么英语中用这样比喻,也许是因为英国人善饮,而视狗为宠物,一般不吃 

狗肉吧。 

220. 吉尔的作业找不到了,急得像热锅上的蚂蚁。 
[误] Failing to find her homework, Jill is just like an ant on a hot pan. 
[正] Failing to find her homework, Jill is just like a cat on a hot tin roof. 

注:试想,炎热的夏天,可怜的猫在晒得发烫的锡房顶上脚板都快被烤熟了,它既不敢跳下去,又不能飞到天上,其处境岂不是酷似“热锅上 

的蚂蚁”? 

221. 我想要认识格林先生。 
[误] I want to recognize Mr. Green. 
[正] I should like to know Mr. Green. 

注:中文说的“认识”在上句中只能用英文的 know 来译,如照字面直译为 recognize 就错了,因为英文的 recognize=know again,例如  

He has changed so much that I can hardly recognize him.(他变得太厉害,我几乎不认识他了。)原来认识的人才可以用 recognize, 

第一次相识只能说 know。 

222. 他父亲破产使他不能出国去留学了。 
[误] The bankruptcy of his father has made him impossible to go abroad. 
[正] The bankruptcy of his father has made it impossible for him to go abroad. 

注:英文的 possible 或 impossible 一类的形容词,是要用“it”来作主语,不可以用“人”作主语的。 

223. 如蒙早日赐复,不胜感激。 
[误] I shall appreciate very much if you will reply at your earliest convenience. 
[正] I shall appreciate it very much if you will reply at your earliest convenience. 

注:作“感激”解的 appreciate 是及物动词,必须接有宾语,其他例如,I greatly apprreciate your kindness.(我非常感激你的好意。 

) 

224. 他跟一个百万富翁的女儿结婚了。 
[误] He married with the daughter of a millionaire. 
[正] He married the daughter of a millionaire. 

注:英文 marry 一字通常是用作及物动词的,共有三个意思。(1)结婚,包括娶和嫁,例如 He is going to marry Miss Wong.(他将娶王 

小姐为妻。)She married an Englishman.(她嫁给一个英国人。)May cousins marry each other?(表兄弟可以结婚吗?)(2)遣嫁,娶 

媳,例如 He married his daughter to a rich man.(他把女儿嫁给一个富翁。)He married his son to an architect's daughter.(他 

替儿子讨了一个建筑师的女儿做老婆。)(3)主婚,例如 The priest is going to marry them.(牧师将为他们主婚。)如用 passive  

voice 是表示已结了婚的那种状态,如 Tom and Alice have been married four years.(汤姆和艾丽丝已结婚四年了。)They got married  

soon after that.(那以后他们随即就结婚了。) 

225. 我哥哥是个跳舞迷。 
[误] My brother is a dance mania. 
[正] My brother has a mania for dancing. 

注:表示对某事的着迷或狂热,英文说 mania,但这个名词不能作主语补足语,只能用作动词 have 的宾语。其他例如 He has a perfect  

mania for rare books.(他有狂搜珍本书的癖好。) 

226. 加拿大有多少人口? 
[误] How many population has Canada? 
[正] What is the population of Canada? 

注:“人口”的英文 population 是不加“s”而构成复数的,所以不能用 many,但有时可以加不定冠词,如 India has a very large  

population for its area.(印度以面积来说人口是很多的。)这个 population 当然也作单数用,如 Population sinks.(人中降低。)通 

常用作集合名词,不加“s”构成复数,除非是下列情形:the educated pupulations of China and Japan(中日两国的知识阶层)。 

227. 我希望我的父母长寿。 
[误] I hope my parents to live long. 
[正] I hope my parents will live long. 

注:英文动词有一定的惯用法(correct usage),有的后面可接不定式,如 I want you to attend the meeting. 有的后面要接动名词,如  

How can we avoid making mistakes? 还有的后面一定要接一个句子(clause),如本例所示,但 hope 也可接不定式,如 I hope to see  

you soon again. 

228. 红色的和白色的玫瑰花开了。 
[误] A red and white rose are in bloom. 
[正] A red and a white rose are in bloom. 

注:表示不同的人,名词前都应用冠词。A novelist and poet 指一个人,即“小说家兼诗人”。另外,不同的形容词修饰名词,则形容词前 

也须加冠词。A red and white 表示“红白相间的”。 

229. 今年应邀出席教师节庆祝活动的教师人数比去年多。 
[误] The number of teachers invited to the Teachers' Day celebrations this year were larger than that of last year. 
[正] The number of teachers invited to the Teachers' Day celebrations this year was larger than that of last year. 

注:a number of 是“若干,许多”的意思,后面应该用动词的复数形式;第二个句子内 the number of 中的 number 是“数目”的意思, 

尽管后面接了复数 teachers,但主语是单数的 number,所以动词须用单数。 

230. 他是一位很有经验的教师,学生提什么问题他都不在乎。 
[误] He is a too experienced teacher to care what kind of question the students may ask. 
[正] He is too experienced a teacher to care what kind of question the students may ask. 

注:如果按正常的词序,则 He is a too experienced teacher.(他是一位很有经验的教师。)不能算错,但是由于此句以 too...to 结构 

贯穿整个句子,这就必须将 too 和 experienced 提至冠词之前。 

231. 假期从明天开始。 
[误] The vacation begins from tomorrow. 
[正] The vacation begins tomorrow. 

注:中文的“从”字在这种场合是不需译出的,其他场合也不需译成 from,例如“新学期从四月开始”。The new term begins in April.  

“新学期从四月五日开始。” The new term begins on the 5th of April. “茶会从六点开始。”The tea party begins at six o'clock.  

“教育从一个人出生开始。” Education begins with a man's birth. 例句中的 tomorrow,是一个副词,副词前是不可以用介词的。 

April, the 5th, six o'clock, birth 都是名词。 


232. 我很高兴接受你的邀请。 
[误] It gives me much plesure in accepting your invitation. 
[正] It gives me much pleasure to accept your invitation. 
.    I have much pleasure in accepting your invitation. 
.    I take great pleasure in accepting your invitation. 

注:take great pleasure=greatly enjoy. 如说 have the pleasure 则后不接 in 而接 of,如 I have the pleasure of accepting your  

invitation.也是通的,不过此种语法多用于下类句中:May I have the pleasure of taking a glass of wine with you? I once had the  

pleasure of being introduced to you. I am sorry I cannot have the pleasure of accompanying you today. I hope you will give  

me the pleasure of dining with me at 8 o'clock tomorrow evening at my place. There are many famous men whom I have not yet  

had the pleasure of meeting so far. 

233. 我最好讲个故事给你听。 
[误] I can do no better than to tell you a story. 
[正] I can do no better than tell you a story. 

注:在 than 后的词的形式应和 than 前的一致,句中前面是 can do,后面只能说(can)tell,不能说(can)to tell. 他例如 It is  

better to win than to lose. I'd rather stay at home than go for a walk. 


234. 错误显然是在你那一边。 
[误] The fault clearly lies at your side. 
[正] The fault clearly lies with your side. 

注:在不及物动词 lie 后可接用各种各样的介词,惟含义各有不同,如 Sheets of paper lie about the room.(纸张散满一屋。)The  

vilage lie across the river.(村庄在河的对岸。)Accusation of theft lay against him.(控他以盗窃罪。)The path lies along a  

stream.(小路沿溪。)The hot springs lie among pretty scenery.(温泉在风光明媚之中。)The blame lies at his door.(错在他。 

)A happy future lies before you.(幸福就在你前面。)What mystery lay behind the disappearance of the girl?(少女失踪的后面 

潜在着什么神秘?)The truth lies between extremes.(真理存于两个极端之间。)He has the MSS lying by him for the next number. 

(下一期的原稿在他那里。)The charm of travel lies in its new experiences.(旅行的妙趣在于新奇的经历。)The ship is lying  

off the mouth of the river.(船停在河口以外。)The book lies on the floor.(书在地上。)A white mist lay over London.(伦敦 

为白雾笼罩。)The person lies under the suspicion of corruption.(那人有受贿的嫌疑。)The choice lies with you.(任你选择。 

)在 lie 后面接介词 with 时,意为“是...的义务”,“是...的责任”,他例如 It lies with you to decide.(决定的责任在你。你有 

义务来作决定。取决于你。)It lies with you to accept or reject the proposal.(接受或拒绝那个建议就全看你了。)The fault does  

not lie with the government officials.(责任不在政府官员。) 

235. 那房间是用电力照明的。 
[误] The room is lighted with electricity. 
[正] The room is lighted by [means of] electricity. 
.    The room is lighted with electric lamps. 


注:用于无形的手段时要用 by,所以与抽象名词连用,但用于有形的手段时则用 with,所以与普通名词连用。electricity 为抽象名词, 

electric lamps 为普通名词。 


236. 你是怎么认识他的? 
[误] How you come to know him? 
[正] How come you to know him? 


注:惯用法在 come to do 的问句中,要将 do,did 等发问的虚词略去,这是古来的传统。但在现今的口语中可说 How did you come to  

know him? 美国口语还可以说 How come you didn't say anything?(你为何一言不发?) 


237. 我从小就认识他。 
[误] I have known him since a child. 
[正] I have known him from a child. 
.    I have known him since his childhood. 


注:从过去某一时期到现在为止,英语要用现在完成时态,介词就用 since,但有时不说“迄”(till)也可以说“起”(from)的,即用“ 

from + 普通名词”代替“since + 抽象名词”。但在 from 后也同样可接抽象名词,所以不说 He has been blind since childhood,而说  

He has been blind from childhood. 也是一样。 


238. 他有自己的一幢房子。 
[误] He has his own house. 
[正] He has a house of his own. 


注:英语的属格代名词(Possessive Pronouns)有两种形式,普通的形式为 my 等,后必须接名词如 my book,绝对的形式为 mine(=my  

book)等,是为避免重复地说那名词而采用的,例如 Your house is larger than mine (=my house)。在属格代名词的前面如再加指示代名词 

时,即在 my book 前再加 this,that,a,some,any,no 等字样时,普通的形式便得改为绝对的形式,以避免指示代名词与属格代名词连 

在一起。三百年前的英语是可以连用的,即可以说 this my book,而现代英语则必须改为 this book of mine 才行。反身属格(Reflexive  

Possessive)的 my own,your own,his own 等,也要采用绝对的形式,因为现代英语已不说 He has that his own house. 或 She has  

some her own reasons. 而必须改成 He has that house of his own. 或 She has some reasons of her own. 


239. 他是我父亲的朋友。 
[误] He is a friend of my father. 
[正] He is a friend of my father's. 


注:名词前面的属格,可代定冠词用,如 my brother's wife=the wife of my brother. 又 my brother's friends=(all) the friends of  

my brother. 如果不是指某一个特定的人或几个人时,则须用不定冠词 (a),那是不能用属格来代替的,即是用了属格,还得有不定冠词,但 

我们又不能说 my brother's a friend. 或 a my brother's friend,所以只好说 a friend of my brother's. 这种表现法所含有的意味是  

a friend (that is) my brother's 或 one of my brother's friends. 这便是英语的双重属格的由来。 


240. 该校有三千名学生。 
[误] The school has three thousand students. 
[正] There are three thousand students in the school. 


注:英语动词 have 有三义:(1)物质上的所有,如 I have a lot of friends. (2)身心上的具有:如 I have a poor memory. (3)构 

成上的含有:如 A week has seven days = There are seven days in a week. 例句中的 have 与(3)相似,但仍是似是而非,因学校是一 

个地点,不是机构,学校与学生的关系,不是不可分离的,不像星期少了一天就不成。还有 “there + be”愿意为“存在”,存在于某处, 

因而变成“有”的意思。 

241. 他们的希望全部破灭了。 
[误] Their hope fell to 0. 
[正] Their hope fell to zero. 

注:zero 作数字时,在科技文章中普遍用作表示0,但在日常生活中,英国英语常把 0 叫作 naught,或 nil,美国英语往往叫作 zero。在  

zero 用作比喻用法时,表示“希望破灭”,“完全没有”,不能写作0。 

242. 你有必要这样去做。 
[误] It is necessary of you to do so. 
[正] It is necessary for you to do so. 

注:一个形容词可以用来指“行为”,又可以用来指“行为者”,如 kind, good, foolish, nice, careful, careless 这类皆是。这种形容 

词可以接用 of 来造句,如 It is kind of you. (行为)= You are kind. (行为者)。另外有些形容词,只能用来指“行为”,不能用来 

指“行为者”,如 necessary, impossible, inconvenient, unbearable 这类皆是。这种形容词是不可以接用 of 来造句的,它只能接用  

for,例如 It is necessary for you to go. 而不能说 You are necessary to go. 

243. 那囚犯的处死引起了诸多公众谴责。 
[误] The prisoner's execution has caused a lot of public censure. 
[正] The execution of the prisoner has caused a lot of public censure. 

注:英语的属格有两种用法:一为主格作用 (Subjective Possessive)。一为宾格作用 (Objective Possessive)。例如 She has come to  

sing his praise. (她来赞美他。)是宾格作用。She doesn't want his praise.(她不要他赞美。)是主格作用。说 his praise(他的赞 

美)用作主格作用是不会有误解的,但说 his praise(赞美他)用作宾格作用,把属格变成了宾格,就令人费解了。这两种作用在文字上是 

没有分别的,读者要从意义上才能加以辩明。如上例句中所说的 the prisoner's execution,意为处死囚犯,当然是宾格作用,因为被人处 

死,是被动,决不可能变成囚犯自己处死的,所以不能说成 the prisoner's execution,只能改用 of 的造句而说成 the execution of the  

prisoner,因为用 of 的造句多是表宾格作用的,例如 the choice of him=the act of choosing him.(选择他)。如说 his choice=the  

person or thing he has chosen(他所选定的人或物),就是主格作用了。 

244. 战争结束后他就留洋了。 
[误] After the war being over, he went abroad. 
[正] The war being over, he went abroad. 

注:在 Absolute Participle 的前面不要再加连词或介词。改正后的句子是属于 Written English 方面的,如改为 Sopken English,则为  

After the war was over, he went abroad. 

245. 虽然他病了好几年,现在却完全好了。 
[误] Though having been ill for years, he is now quite well. 
[正] After having been ill for years, he is now quite well. 
.    Having been ill for years, he is now quite well. 

注:though 是连词,只能用于连结两个从句(clause)。句中 having been ill for years,不是一个从句,至多前面只能用介词 after, 

或根本什么都不要。 

246. 今天的青年喜欢跳舞。 
[误] The youth of today is fond of dancing. 
[正] The youth of today are fond of dancing. 

注:youth 前面加冠词 the 表示复数概念“青年人们”,是集合名词,词尾不加 s。这时谓语动词常用复数形式。这些名词主要有:cattle,  

people, police, youth 等。接在这些名词之后的谓语动词要用复数,指代它们的代词也要用复数。如果要表示以上这些名词的单数,可分别 

说成 a cow, a person, a polikcman 和 a young person。a youth 的意思是 a young man(一个男青年)。 

247. 一到新加坡,我的朋友就在机场等我。 
[误] On arriving at Singapore, my friend was waiting for me at the airport. 
[正] On arriving at Singapore, I found my friend waiting for me at the airport. 

注:凡是带有介词的动名词,或是单独的分词,必须有一个意义上的主语,来配合这个动作。到达新加坡的是“我”,而主句中的主语却是“ 

我的朋友”,动作不能配合,所以是错误的。介词 before 与 after 的情形和 on 一样,故下面的两句也是错的:After finishing his  

work, I paid him. Before reading the text, the vocabulary should be learned. 

248. 无知与疏忽是这错误的原因。 
[误] Ignorance and negligence have caused this mistake. 
[正] Ignorance and negligence has caused this mistake. 

注:两个以上的主语用 and 连起来表示一个单纯的目的或观念时,动词要用单数才对。他例如 Truth and honesty is always the best  

policy. Slow and steady wins the race. Bread and butter is his abomination. 

249. 麦饼比米饼便宜。 
[误] A cake made of wheat costs less than that made of rice. 
[正] A cake made of wheat costs less than one made of rice. 

注:that 是从 the 变来的,属于定冠词的范围之内,所以它只能代表有定冠词的单数名词,如 The cost of oil is less than that of  

gas. 但凡是有不定冠词的单数名词,就不能用 that 代表,只能用 one 代表,如上举的两个例句:one=a cake,而 that=the cost。对于有 

定冠词的单数名词,也并不一定非用 that 代表不可,如 The step you have taken is that of much risk. 一句中的 that 就错了,应改 

为 one 才对,因为在动词 is 后应接 a step,所以只能用 one 代表。 

250. 学生们在星期六晚上要去参加一个舞会。 
[误] The students are going to a dance party on Saturday night. 
[正] The students are going to a dance on Saturday night. 

注:舞会应该说 dancing party,不要说 dance party,但一般只说 dance 也就够了。开舞会就说 give a dance,去参加舞会就说 go to a  

dance。那旅馆每晚举行舞会:At the hotel dances are held nightly. 我第一次遇见她是在一个舞会上:She and I first met at a  

dance. 他们请我参加舞会:They asked me to a dance. 规模较大的舞会,英语又可说 ball,是从拉丁文来的。 

251. 这机器要修理。 
[误] The machine wants to repair. 
[正] The machine wants to be repaired. 
.    The machine wants repairing. 

注:动词 want 也和动词 need 一样,后接动名词时要用主动,后接不定式时才可以用被动,用主动便错了。如果以人做主语,也就可以用主 

动的不定式了,同时也可接被动的不定式,例如 He wants to buy a watch. He wants to be notified beforehand.  

252. 苹果坏了四分之三。 
[误] Three-fourths of the apples was ruined. 
[正] Three-fourths of the apples were ruined. 

注:英语以分数为主语时,由其后接的名词决定动词的单复数,例句中的 apples 为复数,故动词应改为复数的 were。但 Three-fourths of  

the crop was ruined.(四分之三的收成都毁了。) 

253. 猫把家里的老鼠一扫而光。 
[误] The cat cleared off rats from the house. 
[正] The cat cleared the house of rats. 
.    The cat swept rats out of the house. 

注:用动词 clear 时,其形式为“clear + 地点 + of + 物”,如用 sweep 时,则为“sweep + 物 + out of + 地点”。 

254. 昨夜他喝得大醉。 
[误] He was much drunken last night. 
[正] He was much drunk last night. 

注:drunken 是一个限定形容词,只能用在名词前,如 a drunken man(醉人),不能作叙述形容词用。 

255. 到公园去怎样走? 
[误] How shall I go to the park? 
[正] What way shall I take to get to the park? 

注:How shall I go 是问怎样去法,如坐出租车去,坐公共汽车去,或坐三轮车去之类。问路应说 What way 才对。 

256. 全家人在九点钟上教堂去做礼拜。 
[误] The family go to the church at 9 o'clock. 
[正] The family goes to church at 9 o'clock. 

注:把全家人看做一个整体,即一家人,应该接用单数动词。“去做礼拜”,英语应说 go to church,如果加了冠词说成 go to the church 

,便不是去做礼拜,而只是去参观礼拜堂的建筑。同样“上学读书”是 go to school,如说 go to the school,便是指校舍而言,与读书无 

关。 

257. 他的女儿嫁给一个阔人。 
[误] His daughter married to a rich man. 
[正] His daughter married a rich man. 
.    His daughter was married to a rich man. 

注:中国话的“嫁”或“娶”,英语都是 marry。此外,“主婚”也是 marry,例如 She is married to a foreigner.(她嫁给一个外国人 

。)He married a wife last year.(他在去年娶了妻。)He has been married two years.(他结婚两年了。)He wshed to marry his  

daughter to a peer.(他希望把女儿嫁给一个贵族。)The clergyman married Mary Jones to John Smith.(牡师主持玛莉和约翰的婚礼。 

) 

258. 日暮途穷。 
[误] The day is falling and the road is coming to an end. 
[正] The night is falling and the road is coming to an end. 

注:我们说的“日”英语应译作“夜”。汉语的“日暮”除译作 The night is falling 外,又可译成 the night is closing in,或 night  

is coming(on),或 it is getting dark。汉语的“途穷”,除如上照字面译出的以外,又可译为 no road ahead,或意译为 straitened,  

in poor circumstances 等。 

259. 她的服装不大入时。 
[误] Her dress does not conform to the fashion. 
[正] Her dress does not conform with the fashion. 

注:conform to (custom),从(俗),依照(习惯),是有意志的,至于 conform with (custom),(与习惯)相合,是无意志的。例如  

Conform to the custom of the land,入国随俗。Your conduct does not conform with the custom. 你的行为不合习惯。 

260. 如你所知道的,人生常比做航海。 
[误] As you know, life is often compared with a voyage. 
[正] As you know, life is often compared to a voyage. 

注:同种类的东西相比用 compare with,不同种类的东西相比,则要用 compare to,例句中 life 与 voyage 完全不同种类,故用 compare  

to 方合,再看下例 Famous as she is, she cannot be compared with him as a writer of tragedies.(她虽有名,但作为一个悲剧作者 

是不能和他相比的。) 
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